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2020英语备课资料:高考英语真题分项详解 专题01阅读理解之说明文2017

录入者:lgr  人气指数: 次  发布时间:2020年10月16日

专题01阅读理解之说明文2017年】

1. 2017·全国卷ID

A build-it-yourself solar still(蒸馏器) is one of the best ways to obtain drinking water in areas where the liquid is not readily available. Developed by two doctors in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it’s an excellent water collector. Unfortunately, you must carry the necessary equipment with you, since it’s all but impossible to find natural substitutes. The only components required, though, are a 5学科网(www.zxxk.com)--教育资源门户,提供试题试卷、教案、课件、教学论文、素材等各类教学资源库下载,还有大量丰富的教学资讯!5 sheet of clear or slightly milky plastic, six feet of plastic tube, and a container — perhaps just a drinking cup — to catch the water. These pieces can be folded into a neat little pack and fastened on your belt.

To construct a working still, use a sharp stick or rock to dig a hole four feet across and three feet deep. Try to make the hole in a damp area to increase the water catcher’s productivity. Place your cup in the deepest part of the hole. Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole.

?Next, cover the hole with the plastic sheet, securing the edges of the plastic with dirt and weighting the sheet’s center down with a rock. The plastic should now form a cone(圆锥体) with 45-degree-angled sides. The low point of the sheet must be centered directly over, and no more than three inches above, the cup.

The solar still works by creating a greenhouse under the plastic. Ground water evaporates(蒸发) and collects on the sheet until small drops of water form, run down the material and fall off into the cup. When the container is full, you can suck the refreshment out through the tube, and won’t have to break down the still every time you need a drink.

32. What do we know about the solar still equipment from the first paragraph?

A. It’s delicate.????????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. It’s expensive.

C. It’s complex.? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. It’s portable.

33. What does the underlined phrase the water catcher in paragraph 2 refer to?

A. The tube.??????????????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. The still.

C. The hole.???????????????????????? ? ?????? ?????? D. The cup.

34. What is the last step of constructing a working solar still?

A. Dig a hole of a certain size.???????????????????? B. Put the cup in place.

C. Weight the sheet’s center down.????????????????? D. Cover the hole with the plastic sheet.

35. When a solar still works, drops of water come into the cup from????????? .

A. the plastic tube?????????????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? B. outside the hole

C. the open air?????????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. beneath the sheet

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了一种自己可以亲手制作的简单易行的太阳能蒸馏器的方法,并介绍了它的工作原理。这种蒸馏器所需的材料简单,适用于任何缺水的地方。

32. D? 【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段最后一句话These pieces can be folded into a neat little pack and fastened on your belt.可知制作蒸馏器的东西可以叠放在一个小包里,系在腰间,这说明制作蒸馏器的设备很轻便,portable表示"轻便的;手提的",故选D

33. B? 【解析】词义猜测题。根据Try to make the hole in a damp area to increase the water catcher’s productivity可知最好在潮湿的地方挖洞,以提高接水器的工作效率。"接水器"指的是在潮湿的地方挖洞,在洞的底部放一个杯子,杯子上方用膜覆盖,整个装置构成接水器,而不是某个部分。这一题很容易错选D,但是就算在干燥的地方挖洞,杯子也可以接水,杯子接水的事实并不会因为周围环境的变化而变化,杯子的工作效率是不变的。故选B

34. C? 【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段Next, cover the hole with the plastic sheet, securing the edges of the plastic with dirt and weighting the sheet’s center down with a rock.可知最后一步是weighting the sheet’s center down with a rock(放一块石头在覆盖膜的中间,把它压下去),故选C

35. D? 【解析】推理判断题。结合第四段中的Ground water evaporates(蒸发) and collects on the sheet until small drops of water form, run down the material and fall off into the cup可知地下水蒸发,在覆盖膜上聚集起来,直到形成小水滴落在杯子里,覆盖膜是在杯子上面的,水滴落入杯子里,所以水滴是聚在覆盖膜的下面。故选D

2. 2017·全国卷IIC

Terrafugia Inc. said Monday that its new flying car has completed its first flight, bringing the company closer to its goal of selling the flying car within the next year. The vehicle — named the Transition — has two seats, four wheels and wings that fold up so it can be driven like a car. The Transition, which flew at 1,400 feet for eight minutes last month, can reach around 70 miles per hour on the road and 115 in the air. It flies using a 23-gallon tank of gas and burns 5 gallons per hour in the air. On the ground, it gets 35 miles per gallon.

Around 100 people have already put down a $10,000 deposit to get a Transition when they go on sale, and those numbers will likely rise after Terrafugia introduces the Transition to the public later this week at the New York Auto Show. But don’t expect it to show up in too many driveways. It’s expected to cost $279,000. And it won’t help if you’re stuck in traffic. The car needs a runway.

Inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert. But Mann thinks Terrafugia has come closer than anyone to making the flying car a reality. The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly. The Transition is now going through crash tests to make sure it meets federal safety standards.

Mann said Terrafugia was helped by the Federal Aviation Administration’s decision five years ago to create a separate set of standards for light sport aircraft, which are lower than those for pilots of larger planes. Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet.

28. What is the first paragraph mainly about?

A. The basic data of the Transition.

B. The advantages of flying cars.

C. The potential market for flying cars.

D. The designers of the Transition.

29. Why is the Transition unlikely to show up in too many driveways?

A. It causes traffic jams.

B. It is difficult to operate.

C. It is very expensive.

D. It burns too much fuel.

30. What is the government’s attitude to the development of the flying car?

A. Cautious.??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. Favorable.

C. Ambiguous.?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. Disapproving.

31. What is the best title for the text?

A. Flying Car at Auto Show?? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. The Transition’s First Flight

C. Pilots’ Dream Coming True????? ?????? ?????? D. Flying Car Closer to Reality

【语篇解读】本文是一篇科普说明文。Terrafugia 公司研制出飞行汽车并成功进行了第一次飞行,使飞行汽车成为现实更进一步。

28. A【解析】考查段落大意。第一段的第二句"The vehicle...like a car"介绍了飞行汽车Transition的构造,第一段的后半部分介绍它的空中飞行速度、陆地行驶速度和油耗情况,这些都是飞行汽车的基本数据。故选A项。

29. C【解析】考查细节理解。根据第二段中的"But don’t expect it to show up in too many driveways. It’s expected to cost $ 279,000"可知,该飞行汽车是非常贵的,所以不太可能大量出现在车道上。故选C项。

30. B【解析】考查推理判断。根据第三段中的"The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly"可推知,政府对该项目是支持的。故选B项。

31. D【解析】考查主旨大意。根据第一段中的"Terrafugia Inc. said Monday that its new flying car has completed its first flight, bringing the company closer to its goal of selling the flying car within the next year"可知,Terrafugia公司的飞行汽车成功进行了第一次飞行,从而使飞行汽车更加接近现实。所以选D项。主旨大意题的解答要注意文章的首段和尾段,同时要结合文章中大部分内容所讲述的观点。文章中只提及Transition会出现在New York Auto Show,但这不是文章主要内容,故排除A;B项只是飞行汽车的第一次飞行,过于片面;C项中的"Pilots’ Dream"未在文中提及。

3. 2017·全国卷IID

When a leafy plant is under attack, it doesn’t sit quietly. Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and seem to be an alarm. What the plants pump through the air is a mixture of chemicals known as volatile organic compounds, VOCs for short.

Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked. It’s a plant’s way of crying out. But is anyone listening? Apparently. Because we can watch the neighbors react.

Some plants pump out smelly chemicals to keep insects away. But others do double duty. They pump out perfumes designed to attract different insects who are natural enemies to the attackers. Once they arrive, the tables are turned. The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch.

In study after study, it appears that these chemical conversations help the neighbors. The damage is usually more serious on the first plant, but the neighbors, relatively speaking, stay safer because they heard the alarm and knew what to do.

Does this mean that plants talk to each other? Scientists don’t know. Maybe the first plant just made a cry of pain or was sending a message to its own branches, and so, in effect, was talking to itself. Perhaps the neighbors just happened to "overhear" the cry. So information was exchanged, but it wasn’t a true, intentional back and forth.

Charles Darwin, over 150 years ago, imagined a world far busier, noisier and more intimate(亲密的) than the world we can see and hear. Our senses are weak. There’s a whole lot going on.

32. What does a plant do when it is under attack?

A. It makes noises. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. It gets help from other plants.

C. It stands quietly. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. It sends out certain chemicals.

33. What does the author mean by "the tables are turned" in paragraph 3?

A. The attackers get attacked. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. The insects gather under the table.

C. The plants get ready to fight back.??? ?????? ?????? D. The perfumes attract natural enemies.

34. Scientists find from their studies that plants can ???????.

A. predict natural disasters???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. protect themselves against insects

C. talk to one another intentionally ?????? ?????? ?????? D. help their neighbors when necessary

35. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

A. The world is changing faster than ever.??? ?????? B. People have stronger senses than before.

C. The world is more complex than it seems. ?????? D. People in Darwin’s time were more imaginative.

【语篇解读】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了植物在受到昆虫的攻击时是如何进行自我保护的,同时引出世界比我们人类想象的要复杂得多这一观点。

32. D【解析】考查细节理解。根据第一段的"young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant"可知,当植物受到攻击时,它会产生一些化学物质。故选D项。

33. A【解析】考查句意理解。根据第三段中的"The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch"可知,正吃午餐的袭击者变成了午餐,也就是袭击者被攻击了。故选A项。

34. B【解析】考查推理判断。根据第三段中的"Some plants pump out smelly chemicals to keep insects away. But others do double duty"可知,植物能保护自己抵抗昆虫。故选B项。

35. C【解析】考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的"imagined a world far busier, noisier and more intimate(亲密的) than the world we can see and hear. Our senses are weak"可推知,世界比它显现出来的更加复杂。故选C项。

4. 2017·全国卷IIIC

After years of heated debate, gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Fourteen wolves were caught in Canada and transported to the park. By last year, the Yellowstone wolf population had grown to more than 170 wolves.

Gray wolves once were seen here and there in the Yellowstone area and much of the continental United States, but they were gradually displaced by human development. By the 1920s, wolves had practically disappeared from the Yellowstone area. They went farther north into the deep forests of Canada, where there were fewer humans around.

The disappearance of the wolves had many unexpected results. Deer and elk populations — major food sources (来源) for the wolf — grew rapidly. These animals consumed large amounts of vegetation (植被), which reduced plant diversity in the park. In the absence of wolves, coyote populations also grew quickly. The coyotes killed a large percentage of the park’s red foxes, and completely drove away the park’s beavers.

As early as 1966, biologists asked the government to consider reintroducing wolves to Yellowstone Park. They hoped that wolves would be able to control the elk and coyote problems. Many farmers opposed the plan because they feared that wolves would kill their farm animals or pets.

?The government spent nearly 30 years coming up with a plan to reintroduce the wolvers. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service carefully monitors and manages the wolf packs in Yellowstone. Today, the debate continues over how well the gray wolf is fitting in at Yellowstone. Elk, deer, and coyote populations are down, while beavers and red foxes have made a comeback. The Yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well.

28. What is the text mainly about?

A. Wildlife research in the United States.

B. Plant diversity in the Yellowstone area.

C. The conflict between farmers and gray wolves.

D. The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone Park.

29. What does the underlined word displaced in paragraph 2 mean?

A. Tested.?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. Separated.? ?????? ?????? ?????? C. Forced out. ?????? ?????? ?????? D. Tracked down.

30. What did the disappearance of gray wolves bring about?

A. Damage to local ecology.???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. A decline in the park’s income.

C. Preservation of vegetation.??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. An increase in the variety of animals.

31. What is the author’s attitude towards the Yellowstone wolf project?

A. Doubtful.?????? ???? B. Positive.????? ??????? ?????? C. Disapproving.????? ??????? D. Uncaring.

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了美国黄石公园重新引进灰狼的故事。

28. D 【解析】主旨大意题。文章开门见山地提出黄石公园引进灰狼的举措,然后在下文中详细介绍其原因以及带来的良好的转机,由此判断本文的中心话题是美国黄石公园重新引进灰狼。

29. C 【解析】词义猜测题。根据本段后两句可知,因为人类的发展,侵占了灰狼的领域,灰狼逐渐向北迁徙,由此推断灰狼被人类排挤走了。

30. A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段的内容可知,灰狼的减少造成了鹿群的增多,从而植被遭到了破坏;土狼的数量快速增加,它们猎杀了大量的赤狐,赶走了海狸,由此可推断出灰狼的消失导致了当地生态平衡被破坏。

31. B 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章末段的最后一句可知,作者认为引进灰狼的项目是很有价值的实验,因此可推知作者对这一举措持肯定的态度。

5. 2017·全国卷IIID

The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named DriveLAB in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are.

Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated(隔绝) and inactive.

Led by Professor Phil Blythe, the Newcastle team are developing in-vehicle technologies for older drivers which they hope could help them to continue driving into later life.

These include custom-made navigation(导航) tools, night vision systems and intelligent speed adaptations. Phil Blythe explains: For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others.

But we all have to accept that as we get older our reactions slow down and this often results in people avoiding any potentially challenging driving conditions and losing confidence in their driving skills. The result is that people stop driving before they really need to.

Dr Amy Guo, the leading researcher on the older driver study, explains: The DriveLAB is helping us to understand what the key points and difficulties are for older drivers and how we might use technology to address these problems.
?
For example, most of us would expect older drivers always go slower than everyone else but surprisingly, we found that in 30mph zones they struggled to keep at a constant speed and so were more likely to break the speed limit and be at risk of getting fined. We’re looking at the benefits of systems which control their speed as a way of preventing that.

We hope that our work will help with technological solutions(解决方案) to ensure that older drivers stay safer behind the wheel.

32. What is the purpose of the DriveLAB?

A. To explore new means of transport.

B. To design new types of cars.

C. To find out older driver’s problems.

D. To teach people traffic rules.

33. Why is driving important for older people according to Phil Blythe?

A. It keeps them independent.

B. It helps them save time.

C. It builds up their strength.

D. It cures their mental illnesses.

34. What do researchers hope to do for older drivers?

A. Improve their driving skills.

B. Develop driver-assist technologies.

C. Provide tips on repairing their cars.

D. Organize regular physical checkups.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. A new Model Electric Car

B. A Solution to Traffic Problems

C. Driving Services for Elders

D. Keeping Older Drivers on the Road

【文章大意】为了了解老年司机所面临的问题,科研人员研制出DriveLAB,目的是能够帮助他们延长驾龄,从而保持积极、健康的生活方式。

32. C 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章首段的内容可知,研制DriveLAB的目的是为了更好地了解老年司机所面临的挑战。

33. A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段中 Phil Blythe所说的"...driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others"可知,在Phil Blythe看来,能够开车是老年人能够保持独立生活和自由外出的重要条件。

34. B 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章最后三段的内容可知,研究人员希望能够通过研制一些司机辅助技术来帮助老年司机延长驾龄、享受更多的独立生活。

35. D 【解析】主旨大意题。文章主要介绍了科研人员通过把电动车改装成一款"DriveLAB"来研究如何帮助解决老年司机在开车时遇到的问题,以便延长他们独立生活的时间,提高他们的生活质量。

6. 2017·北京卷,C

Measles(麻疹), which once killed 450 children each year and disabled even more, was nearly wiped out in the United States 14 years ago by the universal use of the MMR vaccine(疫苗). But the disease is making a comeback, caused by a growing anti-vaccine movement and misinformation that is spreading quickly. Already this year, 115 measles cases have been reported in the USA, compared with 189 for all of last year.

The numbers might sound small, but they are the leading edge of a dangerous trend. When vaccination rates are very high, as they still are in the nation as a whole, everyone is protected. This is called herd immunity, which protects the people who get hurt easily, including those who can’t be vaccinated for medical reasons, babies too young to get vaccinated and people on whom the vaccine doesn’t work.

But herd immunity works only when nearly the whole herd joins in. When some refuse vaccination and seek a free ride, immunity breaks down and everyone is in even bigger danger.

That’s exactly what is happening in small neighborhoods around the country from Orange County, California, where 22 measles cases were reported this month, to Brooklyn, N.Y., where a 17-year-old caused an outbreak last year.

The resistance to vaccine has continued for decades, and it is driven by a real but very small risk. Those who refuse to take that risk selfishly make others suffer.

Making things worse are state laws that make it too easy to opt out(决定不参加) of what are supposed to be required vaccines for all children entering kindergarten. Seventeen states allow parents to get an exemption(豁免), sometimes just by signing a paper saying they personally object to a vaccine.

Now, several states are moving to tighten laws by adding new regulations for opting out. But no one does enough to limit exemptions.

Parents ought to be able to opt out only for limited medical or religious reasons. But personal opinions? Not good enough. Everyone enjoys the life-saving benefits vaccines provide, but they’ll exist only as long as everyone shares in the risks.

63. The first two paragraphs suggest that ____________.

A. a small number of measles cases can start a dangerous trend

B. the outbreak of measles attracts the public attention

C. anti-vaccine movement has its medical reasons

D. information about measles spreads quickly

64. Herd immunity works well when ____________.

A. exemptions are allowed

B. several vaccines are used together

C. the whole neighborhood is involved in

D. new regulations are added to the state laws

65. What is the main reason for the comeback of measles?

A. The overuse of vaccine.

B. The lack of medical care.

C. The features of measles itself.

D. The vaccine opt-outs of some people.

66. What is the purpose of the passage?

A. To introduce the idea of exemption.

B. To discuss methods to cure measles.

C. To stress the importance of vaccination.

D. To appeal for equal rights in medical treatment.

【文章大意】本文主要是介绍了麻疹在历史上带来的危害,以及为什么会发生这样的情况。

63.A 【解析】文章第二段的首句既是对第一段的总结,又是第二段的中心句,由此可知答案为A

64.C 【解析】根据第三段But herd immunity works only when nearly the whole herd joins in.可知只有所有人都参与了才会有用,故选C

65.D? 【解析】根据第一段But the disease is making a comeback, caused by a growing anti-vaccine movement and misinformation that is spreading quickly.可知,那些反对疫苗的人导致的麻疹的复发,故选D

66.C 【解析】本文主要是介绍了麻疹在历史上带来的危害,以及为什么会有这样的情况,最根本原因还是那些不注射疫苗的人导致的,故本文的目的是强调疫苗的作用,故选C

?

7. 2017·北京卷,D

Hollywood’s theory that machines with evil(邪恶) minds will drive armies of killer robots is just silly. The real problem relates to the possibility that artificial intelligence(AI) may become extremely good at achieving something other than what we really want. In 1960 a well-known mathematician Norbert Wiener, who founded the field of cybernetics(控制论), put it this way: If we use, to achieve our purposes, a mechanical agency with whose operation we cannot effectively interfere(干预), we had better be quite sure that the purpose put into the machine is the purpose which we really desire.

A machine with a specific purpose has another quality, one that we usually associate with living things: a wish to preserve its own existence. For the machine, this quality is not in-born, nor is it something introduced by humans; it is a logical consequence of the simple fact that the machine cannot achieve its original purpose if it is dead. So if we send out a robot with the single instruction of fetching coffee, it will have a strong desire to secure success by disabling its own off switch or even killing anyone who might interfere with its task. If we are not careful, then, we could face a kind of global chess match against very determined, super intelligent machines whose objectives conflict with our own, with the real world as the chessboard.

The possibility of entering into and losing such a match should concentrate the minds of computer scientists. Some researchers argue that we can seal the machines inside a kind of firewall, using them to answer difficult questions but never allowing them to affect the real world. Unfortunately, that plan seems unlikely to work: we have yet to invent a firewall that is secure against ordinary humans, let alone super intelligent machines.

Solving the safety problem well enough to move forward in AI seems to be possible but not easy. There are probably decades in which to plan for the arrival of super intelligent machines. But the problem should not be dismissed out of hand, as it has been by some AI researchers. Some argue that humans and machines can coexist as long as they work in teams—yet that is not possible unless machines share the goals of humans. Others say we can just switch them off as if super intelligent machines are too stupid to think of that possibility. Still others think that super intelligent AI will never happen. On September 11, 1933, famous physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, with confidence, Anyone who expects a source of power in the transformation of these atoms is talking moonshine. However, on September 12, 1933, physicist Leo Szilard invented the neutron-induced(中子诱导) nuclear chain reaction.

67. Paragraph 1 mainly tells us that artificial intelligence may __________.

A. run out of human control

B. satisfy human’s real desires

C. command armies of killer robots

D. work faster than a mathematician

68. Machines with specific purposes are associated with living things partly because they might be able to __________.

A. prevent themselves from being destroyed

B. achieve their original goals independently

C. do anything successfully with given orders

D. beat humans in international chess matches

69. According to some researchers, we can use firewalls to __________.

A. help super intelligent machines work better

B. be secure against evil human beings

C. keep machines from being harmed

D. avoid robots’ affecting the world

70. What does the author think of the safety problem of super intelligent machines?

A. It will disappear with the development of AI.

B. It will get worse with human interference.

C. It will be solved but with difficulty.

D. It will stay for a decade.

【文章大意】这是一篇科技说明文。本文主要介绍了人工智能及它给我们的生活带来的影响。

67.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段The real problem relates to the possibility that artificial intelligence(AI) may become extremely good at achieving something other than what we really want.可知人工智能可能会出现的真正问题是AI会非常擅长取得某个成就而不是我们真正想要的东西,也就是说AI可能会超出人的控制去做一些事情,故选A

68.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段第一句A machine with a specific purpose has another quality, one that we usually associate with living things: a wish to preserve its own existence.可知,原因是保护它自己的存在的一种愿望,也就是说,它具有有生命的物体的一种品质是因为它要保护自己不被破坏,继续存在下去,故选A

69.D 【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段using them to answer difficult questions but never allowing them to affect the real world.可知可以用防火墙来回答那些困难的问题但是却永远不要让他们影响这个真正的现实世界,所以选D

70.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据最后一段Solving the safety problem well enough to move forward in AI seems to be possible but not easy.可知作者认为解决人工智能机器的安全问题是可能的,但是并不容易,也就是很困难,故选C

8.2017·江苏卷,B

Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother’s voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning(胎教),birds could?rule the roost. As recently reported in?The Auk: Ornithological?Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch(孵化). New-born chicks can then imitate their mom’s call within a few days of entering the world.

学科网(www.zxxk.com)--教育资源门户,提供试题试卷、教案、课件、教学论文、素材等各类教学资源库下载,还有大量丰富的教学资讯!

This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia, and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched, the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers — a sound that served as their regular "feed me!" call.

To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red-backed fairy wren, another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks, ranking them by similarity.

It turns out that baby red-backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies’ begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded with the most food.

This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological(神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. "As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?"Kleindorfer asks. "Our results suggest that they might be going for quality."

58. The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means "   ".

A.be the worst ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? B.be the best??

C.be just as bad????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D.be just as good

59. What are Kleindorfer’s findings based on?

A. Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks.

B. The observation of fairy wrens across Australia.

C. The data collected from Queensland’s locals.

D. Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds.

60. Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which   .

A. can receive quality signals ?????? ?????? ?????? B. are in need of training

C. fit the environment better? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. make the loudest call

【文章大意】文章介绍了鸟类在胎教方面的超凡本领。实验发现鸟儿在孵化时不停地鸣叫是为了教会以后出生的雏鸟歌唱的本领,从而挑选出能够适应环境的雏鸟。

58. B【解析】根据第二段"when the errs were hatched, the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers"可知,鸟儿在孵化小鸟的时候,鸣叫对未出生的小鸟有很大影响,它们被孵化后也能发出类似的声音,说明鸟儿很擅长胎教。

59. A【解析】根据第三段"the researchers sought the red-backed fairy wren, another species of Australian songbird."可知,研究人员并未在全澳洲范围展开调查,排除B项;未对其它鸟类进行记录研究,排除D项。根据倒数第三段中的"A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks, ranking them by similarity."可知,A项正确。

60. C【解析】根据倒数第二段中的"the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded with the most food"和最后一段"Our results suggest that they might be going for quality."可知,模仿母鸟模仿得最好的雏鸟得到最多的食物,研究结果表明,母亲会选择质量好的雏鸟。由此可知,胎教帮助母鸟辨别出那些适应环境较好的孩子。

9. 2017·江苏卷,D

Old Problem, New Approaches

While clean energy is increasingly used in our daily life, global warming will continue for some decades after CO2?emissions(排放) peak. So even if emissions were to begin to decrease today, we would still face the challenge of adapting to climate change. Here I will stress some smarter and more creative examples of climate adaptation.

When it comes to adaptation, it is important to understand that climate change is a process. We are therefore not talking about adapting to a new standard, but to a constantly shifting set of conditions. This is why, in part at least, the US National Climate Assessment says that: "There is no?‘one-size fits all’ adaptation." Nevertheless, there are some actions that offer much and carry little risk or cost.

Around the world, people are adapting in surprising ways, especially in some poor countries. Floods have become more damaging in Bangladesh in recent decades. Mohammed Rezwan saw opportunity where others saw only disaster. His not-for-profit organization runs 100 river boats that serve as floating libraries, schools, and health clinics, and are equipped with solar panels and other communicating facilities. Rezwan is creating floating connectivity(连接) to replace flooded roads and highways. But he is also working at a far more fundamental level: his staff show people how to make floating gardens and fish ponds to prevent starvation during the wet season.

Elsewhere in Asia even more astonishing actions are being taken. Chewang Norphel lives in a mountainous region in India, where he is known as the Ice Man. The loss of glaciers(冰川) there due to global warming represents an enormous threat to agriculture. Without the glaciers, water will arrive in the rivers at times when it can damage crops. Norphel’s inspiration came from seeing the waste of water over winter, when it was not needed. He directed the wasted water into shallow basins where it froze, and was stored until the spring. His fields of ice supply perfectly timed irrigation(灌溉) water. Having created nine such ice reserves, Norphel calculates that he has stored about 200,000m3of water. Climate change is a continuing process, so Norphel’s ice reserves will not last forever. Warming will overtake them. But he is providing a few years during which the farmers will, perhaps, be able to find other means of adapting.

Increasing Earth’s reflectiveness can cool the planet. In southern Spain the sudden increase of greenhouses(which reflect light back to space) has changed the warming trend locally, and actually cooled the region. While Spain as a whole is heating up quickly, temperatures near the greenhouses have decreased. This example should act as an inspiration for all cities. By painting buildings white, cities may slow down the warming process.

In Peru, local farmers around a mountain with a glacier that has already fallen victim to climate change have begun painting the entire mountain peak white in the hope that the added reflectiveness will restore the life-giving ice. The outcome is still far from clear. But the World Bank has included the project on its list of "100 ideas to save the planet".

More ordinary forms of adaptation are happening everywhere. A friend of mine owns an area of land in western Victoria. Over five generations the land has been too wet for cropping. But during the past decade declining rainfall has allowed him to plant highly profitable crops. Farmers in many countries are also adapting like this — either by growing new produce, or by growing the same things differently. This is common sense. But some suggestions for adapting are not. When the polluting industries argue that we’ve lost the battle to control carbon pollution and have no choice but to adapt, it’s a nonsense designed to make the case for business as usual.

Human beings will continue to adapt to the changing climate in both ordinary and astonishing ways. But the most sensible form of adaptation is surely to adapt our energy systems to emit less carbon pollution. After all, if we adapt in that way, we may avoid the need to change in so many others.

65. The underlined part in Paragraph 2 implies   .

A. adaptation is an ever-changing process

B. the cost of adaptation varies with time

C. global warming affects adaptation forms

D. adaptation to climate change is challenging

66. What is special with regard to Rezwan’s project?

A. The project receives government support.

B. Different organizations work with each other.

C. His organization makes the best of a bad situation.

D. The project connects flooded roads and highways.

67. What did the Ice Man do to reduce the effect of global warming?

A. Storing ice for future use.

B. Protecting the glaciers from melting.

C. Changing the irrigation time.

D. Postponing the melting of the glaciers.

68. What do we learn from the Peru example?

A. White paint is usually safe for buildings.

B. The global warming trend cannot be stopped.

C. This country is heating up too quickly.

D. Sunlight reflection may relieve global warming.

69. According to the author, polluting industries should?   .

A. adapt to carbon pollution?? ?????? ?????? ?????? B. plant highly profitable crops

C. leave carbon emission alone????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. fight against carbon pollution

70. What’s the author’s preferred solution to global warming?

A. Setting up a new standard. ?????? ?????? ?????? B. Reducing carbon emission.

C. Adapting to climate change.????? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. Monitoring polluting industries.

【文章大意】文章关注的是我们熟悉的话题——气候变暖,不同的是,文章给出了一些应对气候变暖的新途径。

65.A 【解析】考查句意理解。根据上文中的"We are therefore...but to a constantly shifting set of conditions"可知,对于不断变化的环境,没有一个通用的方法来解决所有这样的问题。故画线部分暗示的是适应环境也是一个不断变化的过程。故A正确。

66.C 【解析】考查细节理解。根据第三段首句可知,世界范围内尤其是一些贫穷地区的人们使用了令人意想不到的方法去适应环境的改变,化劣势为优势,再结合下文的内容可知,Rezwan就是这么做的,故答案为C

67.A 【解析】考查细节理解。由第四段中的"...He directed the wasted water into shallow basins where it froze and was stored until the spring..."可知,他把水引入盆地,水在那里结冰并被存储到春天使用,故A正确。

68.D 【解析】考查细节理解。根据第六段的内容可知,在秘鲁当地的农民会把整个山峰涂成白色来增强对阳光的反射,希望借此来保护冰不被融化,再结合第五段的内容可知,反射太阳光可能会减轻全球变暖,故D项正确。

69.D 【解析】考查推理判断。根据第七段中的"When the polluting industries argue that we’ve lost the battle to control carbon pollution and have no choice but to adapt"可知,污染行业辩称因为人们没有赢得治理碳污染的战役,只能适应,再结合下文的"it’s a nonsense designed to make the case for business as usual"可知,作者认为污染行业的这种说法是荒谬的,其目的是给自己的商业行为制造借口。由此可推知,对于污染行业来说,负责任的做法是同碳污染抗争,以减少碳排放,故D正确。

70.B 【解析】考查细节理解。根据最后一段第二句"But the most sensible form of adaptation is surely to adapt our energy systems to emit less carbon pollution"可知,作者认为最明智的应对全球变暖的方法是减少碳排放,故B正确。

10. 2017·浙江卷,B

Getting less sleep has become a bad habit for most American kids. According to a new survey(调查)by the National Sleep Foundation, 51% of kids aged 10 to 18 go to bed at 10 pm or later on school nights, even though they have to get up early. Last year the Foundation reported that nearly 60% of 7- to 12-year-olds said they felt tired during the day, and 15% said they had fallen asleep at school.

How much sleep you need depends a lot on your age. Babies need a lot of rest; most of them sleep about 18 hours a day! Adults need about eight hours. For most school-age children, ten hours is ideal(理想的). But the new National Sleep Foundation survey found that 35% of 10- to 12-year-olds get only seven or eight hours. And guess what almost half of the surveyed kids said they do before bedtime? Watch TV.

"More children are going to bed with TVs on, and there are more opportunities(机会)to stay awake, with more homework, the Internet and the phone," says Dr. Mary Carskadon, a sleep researcher at Brown University Medical School. She says these activities at bedtime can get kids all excited and make it hard for them to calm down and sleep. Other experts say part of the problem is chemical. Changing levels of body chemicals called hormones not only make teenagers’ bodies develop adult characteristics, but also make it hard for teenagers to fall asleep before 11 pm.

Because sleepiness is such a problem for teenagers, some school districts have decided to start high school classes later than they used to. Three years ago, schools in Edina, Minnesota, changed the start time from 7:25 am to 8:30 am. Students, parents and teachers are pleased with the results.

25.What is the new National Sleep Foundation survey on?

A. American kids’ sleeping habits. ?????? ?????? ?????? B. Teenagers’ sleep-related diseases.

C. Activities to prevent sleeplessness.??? ?????? ?????? ?????? D. Learning problems and lack of sleep.

26.How many hours of sleep do 11-year-olds need every day?

A.7 hours.????? ?????? ?????? B.8 hours.?????? ?????? ?????? C.10 hours.???? ?????? ?????? D.18 hours.

27.Why do teenagers go to sleep late according to Carskadon?

A. They are affected by certain body chemicals.

B. They tend to do things that excite them.

C. They follow their parents’ examples.

D. They don’t need to go to school early.

【文章大意】本文属于说明,首先用数据告诉我们美国孩子的睡眠状况堪忧,接着告诉我们孩子在不同年龄段需要的睡眠时间不同,然后分析了孩子晚睡的原因,最后介绍了一些学校为了让孩子们有更多的睡眠时间而推迟了上课的时间。

25. A【解析】细节理解题。文中第一段列举了一些数据,向我们说明美国有51%1018岁的孩子上床睡觉的时间偏晚,也调查了60%712岁的孩子在白天感到疲惫,15%的孩子会在学校睡着,所以这些调查都是关于美国孩子的睡眠习惯的,故选A

26. C【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段"For most school-age children, ten hours is ideal"可知11岁正在上学的小孩子的理想睡眠时间是10个小时,故选C

27. B【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段"She says these activities at bedtime can get kids all excited and make it hard for them to calm down and sleep"可知她认为孩子们睡觉晚的原因是他们会在睡前做一些让他们兴奋的活动,故选B