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2020英语备课资料:高考英语真题分项详解 专题01阅读理解之说明文2019

录入者:lgr  人气指数: 次  发布时间:2020年10月16日

专题01阅读理解之说明文2019年】

1. 2019·全国卷IC

As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric(生物测

)technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.

Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device(装置)that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence(节奏)with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to—regardless of whether someone gets the password right.

It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.

In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch”four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.

28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard?

A. To reduce pressure on keys.?????????????????????????????? B. To improve accuracy in typing

C. To replace the password system.???????????????????????? D. To cut the cost of e-space protection.

29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible

A. Computers are much easier to operate.

B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast.

C. Typing patterns vary from person to person.

D. Data security measures are guaranteed.

30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboardall 1o soisgitieoco oll.

A. It'll be environment-friendly.???????????????????????????? B. It'll reach consumers soon.

C. It'll be made of plastics.???????????????????????????????????? D. It'll help speed up typing.

31. Where is this text most likely from?

A. A diary.?????????????????? B. A guidebook?????????????????? C. A novel.???????????????????????? D. A magazine.

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。数据和身份盗窃变得越来越普遍,目前,向指纹扫描等这些技术仍然是昂贵的。本文介绍了一种新的科技——智能键盘,它能给e-space用户带来安全,而且这项技术也不贵。

28.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段的At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.和第二段的Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device that gets around this problem: a smart key board.可知,研究者们开发智能键盘是为了降低e-space保护的成本。故选D

29.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段的The key board could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user’s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thusthe keyboard can determine people’s identities可知,因为每个人的打字方式不同,使智能键盘能够识别人的身份。故选C

30.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据最后一段的The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.可知,研究者们希望智能键盘能早日面世。故选B

31.D【解析】推理判断题。本文介绍了一种新的科技——智能键盘,它能给e-space用户带来安全,由此可知,本文是关于科技,结合所给选项可知,本文可能来自于一本杂志。故选D

2. 2019·全国卷ID

During the rosy years of elementary school(小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.

Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.

Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are “most likely to engage(从事)in dangerous and risky behavior.”

In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys(调查研究). “We found that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us."

Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness — carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others.

In analyzing his and other researchDr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage, ” he said.

32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school?

A. Unkind.????????????????? B. Lonely.????????????????????????? C. Generous.?????????????????????? D. Cool.

33. What is the second paragraph mainly about

A. The classification of the popular.

B. The characteristics of adolescents.

C. The importance of interpersonal skills.

D. The causes of dishonorable behavior学科网(www.zxxk.com)--教育资源门户,提供试题试卷、教案、课件、教学论文、素材等各类教学资源库下载,还有大量丰富的教学资讯!

34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids?

A. They appeared to be aggressive.

B. They tended to be more adaptable.

C. They enjoyed the highest status.

D. They performed well academically.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. Be Nice-You Won’t Finish Last

B. The Higher the Status, the Beer

C. Be the Best-You Can Make It

D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲到研究表明,对别人好,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。

32.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段During the rosy years of elementary school, I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status(在美好的小学时光里,我喜欢分享我的娃娃和笑话,这让我保持了高高的社会地位。)由此推断出,作者在小学早期时,是一个慷慨的女孩。unkind不友善的;lonely寂寞的;generous慷慨的;cool冷静的,故选C

33.A 【解析】主旨大意题。第二段Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers.(临床心理学教授Mitch Prinstein将受欢迎的人分为两类:讨人喜欢的人和追求地位的人。)是段落主题句,本段内容分别对the likable the status seekers 做了解释,所以本段主要介绍了两种受欢迎的分类,故选A

34.B 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment (它清楚地表明,可爱可以促使健全的调整),由此推断出,心理学教授Mitch Prinstein的研究表明,最有人望的孩子适应性更强,故选B

35.A 【解析】主旨大意题。通过阅读全文内容,尤其是最后一段,可知这篇文章主要讲了受欢迎,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。与选项A“对别人好——最终,你的收获无穷无尽一致,故选A

4. 2019·全国卷IID

Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms(微生物) from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It depending on NASA HUNCH high school class, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York.

HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they’re close to a solution(解决方案). “We don’t give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,” says Florence Gold, a project manager.

“There are no tests,” Gordon says. “There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other than‘Are you working towards your goal?’ Basically, it’s ‘I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of year, present it to NASA.’ Engineers come and really do an in-person review, and…it’s not a very nice thing at time. It’s a hard business review of your product.”

Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact(影响) on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don’t teach.” And that annoying bacteria? Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space.

32. What do we know about the bacteria in the International Space Station?

A. They are hard to get rid of.??????????????????????????????? B. They lead to air pollution.

C. They appear different forms.????????????????????????????? D. They damage the instruments.

33. What is the purpose of the HUNCH program?

A. To strengthen teacher-student relationships.???????? B. To sharpen students’ communication skills.

C. To allow students to experience zero gravity.??????? D. To link space technology with school education

34. What do the NASA engineers do for the students in the program?

A. Check their product.???????????????????????????????????????? B. Guide project designs

C. Adjust work schedules.????????????????????????????????????? D. Grade their homework.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. NASA: The Home of Astronauts.

B. Space: The Final Homework Frontier.

C. Nature: An Outdoor Classroom.

D. HUNCH:A College Admission Reform.

【语篇解读】本文为说明文。本文介绍了HUNCH项目就是通过Gordon的学生找到如何杀死空间站的细菌这一技术,把空间技术与带进课堂,与学校教育相结合,从而最终影响到大学入学。

32.A 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Bacteria are annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms form our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week.”可知,细菌对宇航员来说是个令人讨厌的问题。这种来自我们身体的微生物在国际空间站的表面不受控制地生长,宇航员每周要花几个小时来清理它们。也就是说它们很难去掉。其中的“the microorganisms”包括“bacteria”。由此可知, A项符合题意。

33.D 【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段的 “HUNCH? is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity,...”可知,Hunch旨在把高中教室和NASA的工程师联系起来。Gordon的学生一直在研究如何在零重力下杀死细菌, ...”。结合最后一段中的“Gordon students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem,...”可知,学生每天都给NASA的工程师发邮件一起探讨(如何杀死空间站的细菌这一空间技术)这个问题。由此可推断出HUNCH program的目的把空间技术与学校教育相结合。分析选项可知D项符合题意。

34.A 【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段中的“I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of the year ,present it to NASA, ”“Engineers come and really do an in-person reviewand ...It’s not a very nice thing at times. It’s a hard business review of your product.”可知,NASA的工程师要检查学生所做的产品。分析选项可知A项符合题意,故选A

35.B 【解析】主旨大意题。文章以国际空间站里的微生物很难清除开头,引出宇航员们解决此问题的途径 —— 借助美国国家航空航天局的HUNCH高中班,此计划的目的是把航天技术与学校教育结合起来。在这项计划里,学生们通过homework(制作供美国国家航空航天局使用的产品)探索无疆的太空,因此太空:最后的功课疆域最适合做文章的标题。故选B

3. 2019·全国卷IIIC

Before the 1830s学科网(www.zxxk.com)--教育资源门户,提供试题试卷、教案、课件、教学论文、素材等各类教学资源库下载,还有大量丰富的教学资讯!most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually $8 to $10 a year. Today $8 or $10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that.

The trend, then, was toward the "penny paper"-a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper; perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.

This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible(but not easy)to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830,but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer's office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny-usually two or three cents was charged-and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase "penny paper " caught the public's fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny.

This new trend of newspapers for "the man on the street" did not begin well. Some of the early ventures(企业)were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.

28. Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s?

A. Academic.?????????????? B. Unattractive.????????????????? C. Inexpensive.?????????????????? D. Confidential.

29. What did street sales mean to newspapers?

A. They would be priced higher.???????????????????????????? B. They would disappear from cities.

C. They could have more readers.?????????????????????????? D. They could regain public trust.

30. Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at?

A. Local politicians.????????????????????????????????????????????? B. Common people.

C. Young publishers.???????????????????????????????????????????? D. Rich businessmen.

31. What can we say about the birth of the penny paper?

A. It was a difficult process.?????????????????????????????????? B. It was a temporary success.

C. It was a robbery of the poor.?????????????????????????????? D. It was a disaster for printers.

【语篇解读】本文为说明文。文章叙述了便士报纸的诞生历史。

28.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Before1830s... Accordingly newspapers were read almost only by rich people. In addition ,most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding.”可知,在19世纪30年代之前,只有富人才能读报纸,而且大多数报纸中几乎没有能吸引大众的内容,让人感觉无聊,,视觉上令人望而却步。由此可得出那时的报纸没有什么吸引力。分析选项,A . Academic学术的;B. Unattractive没有吸引力,无魅力的; C. Inexpensive廉价的,不贵的; D. Confidential机密的,保密的。可知 ACD是错误的,只有B符合题意,故选B

29.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段提到便士报纸针对大众,很便宜的。更重要的是,在街上可以买的到报纸。结合第三段中间的“streets sales of newspapers would be commonplaced in eastern cities”可知,报纸的街头销售随处可见。由此可推断出,街头销售意味读报纸的多了。分析选项可知C符合题,故选C

30.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段中的“The trend, then, was ‘penny paper’—a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.”可知,这种便士报纸针对大众的,在街上可以买的到报纸。分析选项可知,选项B符合题意,故选B

31.A 【解析】推理判断题。第二段“The trend, then, was ‘penny paper’”及最后一段“The new trend of newspapers for ‘the man on the street’ did not begin well. Some of the early ventures were immediately failures. Publishers already in business, people who owners of successful papers, had little desires to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.”可知,便士报纸新趋势一开始并不好,一些早期的尝试立即失败了。已经进入商业领域的成功的出版商,并不想改变这一传统。后来一些年轻而大胆的商人才推动了这件事。由此可推断出便士报纸的诞生是一个困难而曲折的过程。分析选项可知,A项符合题意,故选A

5. 2019·全国卷IIID

Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers.

A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward.

Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example.

After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination.

When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估)a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分)of the smaller number to it.

"This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.”

32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?

A. They fed them.???????????????????????????????????????????????? B. They named them.

C. They trained them.??????????????????????????????????????????? D. They measured them.

33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?

A. By drawing a circle.????????????????????????????????????????? B. By touching a screen.

C. By watching videos.????????????????????????????????????????? D. By mixing two drinks.

34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?

A. They could perform basic addition.???????????????????? B. They could understand simple words.

C. They could memorize numbers easily.???????????????? D. They could hold their attention for long.

35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?

A. Entertainment.???????? B. Health.????????????????????????? C. Education.????????????????????? D. Science.

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。研究发现:猴子可以进行基本的加法运算。文章对研究的经过和结论做了介绍和分析。

32.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段中的“A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys…The researches then tested how…”可知,在对这些猴子进行测试之前,研究者们对它们进行了培训。故C选项正确。

33.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段中的“In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screen…If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen, they would be rewarded with seven drops…; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with…”可知,当猴子触摸屏幕左边时,它们会得到7滴水或者果汁的奖励;当它们触摸屏幕的另一端(即画着圆圈的部分)时,它们会得到17滴水或果汁的奖励。由此可知,猴子是通过触摸屏幕得到奖励的。B选项正确。

34.A 【解析】细节理解题。根据第四段“The monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination”和第五段中的“When adding two numbers…”可知,猴子会在超过一半的时间内选择更高的值,这意味着它们在进行计算,而不仅仅是记住每一个组合的值。由此可知,A选项正确:猴子能够进行基本的加法计算。由此亦可以排除C选项。

35.D 【解析】推理判断题。通读整篇文章可知,该文介绍的是哈佛医学院的科学家Margaret Livingstone领导的一个研究团队对猴子进行实验得出的研究结果。这属于科学研究范畴,故该文应出现在报纸的科学板块。故D选项正确。

6. 2019·北京卷,C

The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next yearhalf of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈).We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of toolsapps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunatelyit's too littletoo late. By the time these “solutions"(解决方案)become widely availablescammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near futureit's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.

That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation ( 处理 ) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use .At this year's I/O Conference ,a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human –sounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.

These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision A decade of data breaches(数据侵入)of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother 's name and far more. Armed with? this? knowledge. they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means. for examplethat a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller 'sricking you into "confirming " your addressmother's nameand card number. Scammers follow moneyso companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phoneand much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.

We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by. or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications—using apps like Face Time or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.

Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to harder from here on out.

38. How does the author feel about the solutions to problem of robecalls?

A. Panicked.??????????????? B. Confused.????????????????????? C. Embarrassed.????????????????? D. Disappointed.

39. taking advantage of the new technologiesscammer can______.

A. aim at victims precisely???????????????????????????????????? B. damage databases easily

C. start campaigns rapidly????????????????????????????????????? D. spread? information widely

40. What does the passage imply?

A. Honesty is the best policy.

B. Technologies can be double-edited.

C. There are more solutions than problems.

D. Credibility holds the key to development.

41. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

A. Where the Problem of Robocalls Is Rooted

B. Who Is to Blame for the Problem of Roboealls

C. Why Robocalls Are About to Get More Dangerous

D. How Robocalls Are Affecting the World of Technology

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。语音操作与自动化技术的出现使得机器人电话可以以假乱真。语音操作和自动化技术发展会使得机器人电话产生的问题更加严重。

38. D? 【解析】观点态度题。根据第一段中的“We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it’s too little, too late. By the time these “solutions” become widely available, scammers will have moved onto clever means”可知,最后,我们通过支持和开发一组旨在防止欺诈者通过的工具、应用程序和方法,认识到了问题的严重性。不幸的是,我们的努力太少了,也太晚了。在这些解决方案被广泛使用的时候,骗子将转移到更巧妙的手段上。由此推知,作者认为这些解决办法对于解决问题起不了什么作用,因此作者感到很失望。故D选项正确。

39.A? 【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段中的“The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother’s name, and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they’re able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller’s, tricking you into “confirming” your address, mother’s name, and card number”可知,机器人通话之所以令人头痛,与其说与数量有关,不如说与精确度有关。长达十年的个人信息泄露已经导致了这样一种情况:骗子可以轻易地知道你母亲的名字,甚至更多。有了这些知识,他们就能够开展有针对性的运动来欺骗人们。根据这些可知,利用这种新的技术,欺诈者们可以精确的确定他们行骗的目标。故A选项正确。

40.B? 【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句可知,这项语音技术可以产生一个听起来和人类非常相似的声音,它可以和接待员进行交谈,进行预订。由此可知,这项新技术有其好的方面。根据第三段的叙述可知,欺诈者们可以利用这项新技术来进行欺诈行为。由此推知,这项新技术既可以发挥好的作用,也可能为坏人所利用,产生不好的作用,因此可以说它是一把双刃剑。故B选项正确。

41.C 【解析】主旨大意题。第一段提到:robocalls(机器人电话: 自动拨号播放录音信息的推销电话)在未来变得会越来越严重,不仅仅是出现在你的手机屏幕上的电话号码令人怀疑,而且你会质疑听到的声音是否是真的。第二段介绍原因:语音操作与自动化技术的出现使得机器人电话可以以假乱真。第三段介绍了语音操作和自动化技术发展会使得机器人电话产生的问题更加严重。最后两段提出我们该如何应对这些问题。综上,文章第一段点明文章中心:机器人电话问题在未来会变得越来越严重。下文都是围绕这一话题展开的。故C选项适合作标题。

7. 2019·北京卷,D

By the end of the centuryif not soonerthe world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climateaccording to a new study.

At the heart of the phenomenon lie tiny marine microorganisms(海洋微生物)called phytoplankton. Because of the way light reflects off the organismsthese phytoplankton create colourful patterns at the ocean surface. Ocean colour varies from green to bluedepending on the type and concentration of phytoplankton. Climate change will fuel the growth of phytoplankton in some areaswhile reducing it in other spotsleading to changes in the ocean's appearance.

Phytoplankton live at the ocean surfacewhere they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms diethey bury carbon in the deep oceanan important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean's warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growthsince they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to growbut also nutrients.

Stephanie Dutkiewicza scientist in MIT's Center for Global Change Sciencebuilt a climate model that projects changes to the oceans throughout the century. In a world that warms up by 3℃it found that multiple changes to the colour of the oceans would occur. The model projects that currently blue areas with little phytoplankton could become even bluer. But in some waterssuch as those of the Arctica warming will make conditions riper for phytoplanktonand these areas will turn greener. “Not only are the quantities of phytoplankton in the ocean changing. ”she said“but the type of phytoplankton is changing. ”

42. What are the first two paragraphs mainly about?

A. The various patterns at the ocean surface.

B. The cause of the changes in ocean colour.

C. The way light reflects off marine organisms.

D. The efforts to fuel the growth of phytoplankton.

43. What does the underlined word“vulnerable”in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

A. Sensitive.??????????????? B. Beneficial????????????????????? C. Significant???????????????????? D. Unnoticeable

44. What can we learn from the passage?

A. Phytoplankton play a declining role in the marine ecosystem.

B. Dutkiewicz's model aims to project phytoplankton changes

C. Phytoplankton have been used to control global climate

D. Oceans with more phytoplankton may appear greener.

45. What is the main purpose of the passage

A. To assess the consequences of ocean colour changes

B. To analyse the composition of the ocean food chain

C. To explain the effects of climate change on oceans

D. To introduce a new method to study phytoplankton

【语篇解读】本文为说明文。一项最新研究表明,由于气候变暖,世界海洋将会变得更蓝、更绿。这一现象是因为一种叫做浮游植物的微小海洋微生物,因为光线反射的作用,它们在海洋表面形成了五颜六色的图案。但是浮游植物很容易受到海洋变暖趋势的影响。气候变暖会改变海洋的主要特征,并影响浮游植物的生长。

42. B? 【解析】段落大意题。第一段“By the end of the century. If not sooner, the world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climate, according to a new study.”可知,到本世纪末,一项新的研究表明,由于气候变暖,如果不尽快的话,世界上的海洋将会变得更蓝、更绿。结合第二段“At the heart phenomenon lie tiny marine microorganisms called phytoplankton. Becaust of the way light reflects off the organisms ,these phytoplanktons create colourful patterns at the ocean surface. Ocean colour varies from green to blue, depending on the type and concentration”可知,这种现象的核心是一种叫做浮游植物的微小海洋微生物,在光线的作用下在海洋表面形成了五颜六色的图案。海洋的颜色从绿色到蓝色不等,这取决于海洋的类型和浮游植物浓度。由此可推断出这两段主要叙述了海洋生物是海洋颜色变化的原因。分析选项可知B符合题意,故选B

43. A【解析】词义猜测题。根据划线词后的“Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunshine and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.”可知,气候变暖会改变海洋的主要特征,并会影响浮游植物的生长。由此可判断“But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean’s wamning trend”可知,浮游植物很容易受到海洋变暖趋势的影响。可知A项正确。

44. D 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段“The model projects that currently blue areas with little? phytoplankton could become even bluer. But in some waters ,such as those of the Arctic, a warming will make conditions riper for phytoplankton, and these areas will turn greener”,可知Dutkiewicz的模型预测,目前只有少量浮游植物的蓝色区域可能会变得更蓝。但是在一些水域,比如北极,气候变暖会使浮游植物的生长条件更加成熟,而这些水域会变得更绿了。由此可推断,浮游植物的生长条件更加成熟,浮游动植物就更多了,这些水域会变得更绿了。分析选项可知D项符合题意。

45. C【解析】目的意图题。第一段提出文章的主旨“By the end of the century. If not sooner, the world's oceans will be bluer and greener thanks to a warming climate, according to a new study.”可知到本世纪末。一项新的研究表明,由于气候变暖,如果不尽快的话,世界上的海洋将会变得更蓝、更绿。再结合第三段“But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean’s warning trendWarming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, …”可知,浮游植物很容易受到海洋警告趋势的影响,变暖改变了海洋的关键特征,并能影响浮游植物的生长。可知本文主要解释气候变化对海洋的影响。故选C

8. 2019·天津卷,C

How does an ecosystem(生态系统)workWhat makes the populations of different species the way they areWhy are there so many flies and so few wolvesTo find an answerscientists have built mathematical models of food websnoting who eats whom and how much each one eats.

With such modelsscientists have found out some key principles operating in food webs. Most food websfor instanceconsist of many weak links rather than a few strong ones. When a predator(掠食动物)always eats huge numbers of a single prey(猎物),the two species are strongly linkedwhen a predator lives on various speciesthey are weakly linked. Food webs may be dominated by many weak links because that arrangement is more stable over the long term. If a predator can eat several speciesit can survive the extinction(灭绝)of one of them. And if a predator can move on to another species that is easier to find when a prey species becomes rarethe switch allows the original prey to recover. The weak links may thus keep species from driving one another to extinction.

Mathematical models have also revealed that food webs may be unstablewhere small changes of top predators can lead to big effects throughout entire ecosystems. In the 1960sscientists proposed that predators at the top of a food web had a surprising amount of control over the size of populations of other species---including species they did not directly attack.

And unplanned human activities have proved the idea of top-down control by top predators to be true. In the oceanwe fished for top predators such as cod on an industrial scalewhile on landwe killed off large predators such as wolves. These actions have greatly affected the ecological balance.

Scientists have built an early-warning system based on mathematical models. Ideallythe system would tell us when to adapt human activities that are pushing an ecosystem toward a breakdown or would even allow us to pull an ecosystem back from the borderline. Prevention is keyscientists says because once ecosystems pass their tipping point(临界点),it is remarkably difficult for them to return.

46. What have scientists discovered with the help of mathematical models of food webs

A. The living habits of species in food webs.

B. The rules governing food webs of the ecosystems.

C. The approaches to studying the species in the ecosystems.

D. The differences between weak and strong links in food webs.

47. A strong link is found between two species when a predator______

A. has a wide food choice

B. can easily find new prey

C. sticks to one prey species

D. can quickly move to another place

48. What will happen if the populations of top predators in a food web greatly decline

A. The prey species they directly attack will die out.

B. The species they indirectly attack will turn into top predators.

C. The living environment of other species will remain unchanged.

D. The populations of other species will experience unexpected changes.

49. What conclusion can be drawn from the examples in Paragraph 4

A. Uncontrolled human activities greatly upset ecosystems.

B. Rapid economic development threatens animal habitats.

C. Species of commercial value dominate other species.

D. Industrial activities help keep food webs stable.

50. How does an early-warning system help us maintain the ecological balance

A. By getting illegal practices under control.

B. By stopping us from killing large predators.

C. By bringing the broken-down ecosystems back to normal.

D. By signaling the urgent need for taking preventive action.

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。本文介绍了借助食物网的数学模型,科学家们发现了一些在食物网运营的关键原则。科学家们说;因为一个生态系统越过了它的临界点,它们很难再回来。该系统将告诉我们何时适应人类活动,这些活动正将生态系统推向崩溃,或者甚至允许我们将生态系统从边缘拉回来,预防是关键。

46.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段的With such models, scientists have found out some key principles? operating in food webs.可知,借助食物网的数学模型,科学家们发现了食物网中的一些关键原则。故选B

47. C【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段的When a predator(掠食动物) always eats huge numbers of a single? prey(猎物)the two species are strongly linked可知,当捕食者总是吃大量的单一猎物,这两个物种是紧密相连的。故选C

48. D 【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段的In the 1960s, scientists proposed that predators at the top of a food web had, a surprising amount of control over the size of populations of other species they did not directly attack可知,处于食物网顶端的食肉动物对它们没有直接攻击的其他物种的种群数量有着惊人的控制,由此可推断出,如果食物链顶级食肉动物的数量大大下降,其他物种的种群将经历意想不到的变化。故选D

49.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段的Ideally the system would tell us when to adapt human activities that are pushing an ecosystem toward a breakdown or would even allow us to pull an ecosystem back from the borderline可知,人类过度的活动会将生态系统推向崩溃,由此可推断出,不受控制的人类活动极大地破坏了生态系统。故选A

50. D 【解析】细节理解题。根据最后一段的Scientists have built an early-warning system based on mathematical models. Ideally the system would tell us when to adapt human activities that are pushing an ecosystem toward a breakdown or would even allow us to pull an ecosystem back from the borderline.可知,早期变暖系统发出紧急需要采取预防行动的信号帮助我们维持生态平衡。故选D

9. 2019·江苏卷,B

In the 1960swhile studying the volcanic history of Yellowstone National ParkBob Christiansen became puzzled about something thatoddlyhad not troubled anyone before:he couldn't find the park's volcano. It had been known for a long time that Yellowstone was volcanic in nature — that's what accounted for all its hot springs and other steamy features. But Christiansen couldn't find the Yellowstone volcano anywhere.

Most of uswhen we talk about volcanoesthink of the classic cone(圆锥体)shapes of a Fuji or Kilimanjarowhich are created when erupting magma(岩浆)piles up. These can form remarkably quickly. In 1943a Mexican farmer was surprised to see smoke rising from a small part of his land. In one week he was the confused owner of a cone five hundred feet high. Within two years it had topped out at almost fourteen hundred feet and was more than half a mile across. Altogether there are some ten thousand of these volcanoes on Earthall but a few hundred of them extinct. There ishowevera second les known type of volcano that doesn't involve mountain building. These are volcanoes so explosive that they burst open in a single big crackleaving behind a vast holethe caldera. Yellowstone obviously was of this second typebut Christiansen couldn't find the caldera anywhere.

Just at this time NASA decided to test some new high-altitude cameras by taking photographs of Yellowstone. A thoughtful official passed on some of the copies to the park authorities on the assumption that they might make a nice blow-up for one of the visitors' centers. As soon as Christiansen saw the photoshe realized why he had failed to spot the caldera; almost the whole park-2.2 million acres—was caldera. The explosion had left a hole more than forty miles across—much too huge to be seen from anywhere at ground level. At some time in the past Yellowstone must have blown up with a violence far beyond the scale of anything known to humans.

58. What puzzled Christiansen when he was studying Yellowstone

A. Its complicated geographical features.

B. Its ever-lasting influence on tourism.

C. The mysterious history of the park.

D. The exact location of the volcano.

59. What does the second-paragraph mainly talk about

A. The shapes of volcanoes.

B. The impacts of volcanoes.

C. The activities of volcanoes.

D. The heights of volcanoes.

60. What does the underlined word "blow-up" in the last paragraph most probably mean

A. Hot-air balloon.??????????????????????????????????????????????? B. Digital camera.

C. Big photograph.?????????????????????????????????????????????? D. Bird's view.

【语篇解读】本文为说明文。讲述了二十世纪六十年代Bob Christiansen在研究黄石公园的火山历史时,奇怪地发现到处看不到火山的影子,原来,这儿的火山并不是像我们大部分人想象的那种圆锥体形状的高耸的样子,而是一个巨大的洞,这个洞太大了以至于从地面上的任何地方都看不见。

58.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句But Christiansen couldn’t find the Yellowstone volcano anywhere.可知,他困惑的是到处看不到火山。故选D

59.A 【解析】主旨大意题。本段讲述了两种形状的火山,一种是通常人们所理解的由火山岩浆堆积形成的圆锥体,还有一种极具爆发力的火山,它们会在一个大裂缝中爆裂,留下一个巨大的洞,故选A

60.C 【解析】词义猜测题。根据第三段第一句Just at this time NASA decided to test some new high-altitude cameras by taking photographs of Yellowstone. A thoughtful official passed on some of the copies to the park authorities on the assumption that they might make a nice blow-up for one of the visitors’ centers.可知,美国国家航空和宇宙航行局为测试一些新的高海拔照相机而拍摄了黄石公园的照片。一位深思熟虑的官员把其中的一些照片副本转交给了公园管理部门,认为他们可能会将其放大以供一个游客中心展示。故可知,此处意为将照片放大,选C

10. 2019·浙江卷,C

California has lost half its big trees since the 1930s, according to a study to be published Tuesday and climate change seems to be a major factor(因素).

The number of trees larger than two feet across has declined by 50 percent on more than 46, 000 square miles of California forests, the new study finds. No area was spared or unaffected, from the foggy northern coast to the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the San Gabriels above Los Angeles. In the Sierra high country, the number of big trees has fallen by more than 55 percent; in parts of southern California the decline was nearly 75 percent.

Many factors contributed to the decline, said Patrick Mclntyre, an ecologist who was the lead author of the study. Woodcutters targeted big trees. Housing development pushed into the woods. Aggressive wildfire control has left California forests crowded with small trees that compete with big trees for resources(资源).

But in comparing a study of California forests done in the 1920s and 1930s with another one between 2001 and 2010, Mclntyre and his colleagues documented a widespread death of big trees that was evident even in wildlands protected from woodcutting or development.

The loss of big trees was greatest in areas where trees had suffered the greatest water shortage. The researchers figured out water stress with a computer model that calculated how much water trees were getting in comparison with how much they needed, taking into account such things as rainfall, air temperature, dampness of soil, and the timing of snowmelt(融雪).

Since the 1930s, Mclntyre said, the biggest factors driving up water stress in the state have been rising temperatures, which cause trees to lose more water to the air, and earlier snowmelt, which reduces the water supply available to trees during the dry season.

27. What is the second paragraph mainly about?

A. The seriousness of big-tree loss in California.

B. The increasing variety of California big trees.

C. The distribution of big trees in California forests.

D. The influence of farming on big trees in California.

28. Which of the following is well-intentioned but may be bad for big trees?

A. Ecological studies of forests.

B. Banning woodcutting.

C. Limiting housing development.

D. Fire control measures.

29. What is a major cause of the water shortage according to Mclntyre?

A. Inadequate snowmelt.?????????????????????????????????????? B. A longer dry season.

C. A warmer climate.??????????????????????????????????????????? D. Dampness of the air.

30. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. California's Forests: Where Have All the Big Trees Gone?

B. Cutting of Big Trees to Be Prohibited in California Soon

C. Why Are the Big Trees Important to California Forests?

D. Patrick Mclntyre: Grow More Big Trees in California

【语篇解读】本文为说明文,根据一项研究表明,自20世纪30年代以来,加州已经失去了一半的大树,气候变化似乎是其主要因素。

27.A 【解析】主旨大意题。在第二段中,作者用具体数据说明了大树损失在各个地区的严重程度,没有任何地区幸免或不受影响,故选A

28. D【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句Aggressive wildfire control has left California forests crowded with small trees that compete with big trees for resources(资源).可知,野火控制在控制了森林大火的同时,使得加利福尼亚的森林里挤满了小树,它们与大树争夺资源,这对大树产生了不利的影响,故选D

29.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据最后一段the biggest factors driving up water stress in the state have been rising temperatures, …, and earlier snowmelt, …可知,造成加州水资源短缺的最大因素是气温的上升,以及较早的融雪,故选C

30.A 【解析】主旨大意题。通读全文可知,自20世纪30年代以来,加州已经失去了一半的大树,文章分析了引起该现象的几个主要因素。全文围绕加州森林的大树都去哪儿了话题展开,故选项A符合题意。